Like Father, Like son.

After Philip II Macedon’s death, his son, Alexander The Great rose to power. Alexander quickly began conquering many Greek city-states such as Egypt, India, and Persia. He wanted to continue moving eastward, however his exhausted troops refused to continue fighting. They told him that a great leader knew when it was time to stop fighting. When Alexander was done fighting, he had control over the largest empire in the ancient world. Despite becoming King at 20 and being so successful, his father Philip II is more responsible for his successes. 

Phillip of Macedon invaded and conquered these Greek city- states by taking advantage of the fact that they were all divided by years of arguing and fighting. By taking over these city-states, he essentially united them. Phillip II also built up the army that Alexander The Great used to conquer other Greek- city states. Phillip II inherited an inexperienced and ineffective army. The first thing he wanted to do was revolutionize and modernize the army. He wanted to increase their numbers and change how it works. He separated his newly created infantry and organized them into battalions. The units formed a phalanx of 18,000 men. He armed these troops with sarissa, a 15-18 pole with a sharp iron point at the end to penetrate through the enemy’s shield. Due to the length of the sarissa, it allowed Philip II to lighten the armor. He supplied them with a shield that strapped to the left arm and light body armor. The sarissa and phalanx increased mobility and striking power of phalanx. Philip mobilized mobility. He also organized a mobile siege train that included engineers and war engines, that could be used as artillery in battle. Philip of Macedon was now ready to conquer Greece. 

Alexander kept the same principles as his father, but took them to another level. He also employed several engineers to develop siege weapons. One thing that was different from his father, was that Alexander was always in the front of of the battle. He believed that this would strike fear in the enemy, as well as boost morale in his own army. When he would strike, he would do it in the center of the opposing army. Alexander The Great also added a unit of hypasists, or shield bearers to the phalanx. They carried shorter spears. The hypasists were more mobile and could move side to side. The phalanx wasn’t good on uneven terrain, and Alexander was smart enough to mix things up in this case. 

Before Philip II died, he wanted to invade and conquer Persia. Alexander stuck to that, and went to war with Persia with 50,000 soldiers. Using tactics, strategy, and experienced soldiers, he was able to fulfill his father’s goal. After conquering Persia, he continued east to move east before stopping. After conquering, he spread the Greek culture throughout the empire. His reign marked a new era known as the Hellenistic Age because of the influence that the Greek culture had on other people. 

Policing throughout the U.S has fluctuated between the 19th and 20th century. Policing was heavily drawn into local politics. Politicians had control over police agencies because they were able to choose chiefs that would run the agencies. By choosing this position, they essentially would have no power.  In the 19th century, political involvement in policing was seen as a problem by the public and police reformers. During the mid 19th century, the police reform began to create standards for recruiting and hiring officers and administrators rather than letting politicians select these people. They also wanted to improve the quality of policing by setting standards for policemen they want to hire, implementing better training and giving them technology to help them in operations.
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